How does UX hiring at Google work? Earl Friedberg, UX Lead on Gmail and Google Chat, covers the entire candidates funnel and some of the specific hiring steps, such as the portfolio walkthrough and whiteboard exercise. What makes these steps successful? How can candidates set themselves up for success? Earl also sings for the San Francisco Gay Men’s Chorus, and he shares some tips he uses for live performances, which you can repurpose to manage your nerves during interviews.
And I can’t tell you how many times recruiters have brought me these superstar designer candidates that, on paper, have amazing work. But when you dig into it, you realize, this person actually can’t collaborate with others. I can’t imagine them working with my team, or hundreds of other people, so this type of candidate might be great for a different company. But for Google, we’re not looking for that type of candidate at all, we’re really looking for somebody who does have that aptitude to be able to collaborate, and that proactivity to be able to partner.
Earl FriedbergUX Lead on Gmail at Google
Behind the mic
Earl currently leads the UX design team for two of the world’s most popular apps – Gmail and Google Chat. Prior to Google, Earl led the UX teams at Riverbed and BlackBerry, working on the world’s earliest smartphones and messenger products. Earl holds a Masters in HCI from the Cheriton School of Computer Science at the University of Waterloo. He is a mentor at Springboard, a UX online bootcamp, and sings with the San Francisco Gay Men’s Chorus.
In case you missed my barely audible accent, I was born and raised in northern Italy, near the Milano area, and moved to the USA a decade ago. I started venturing in the realm of pixels and websites during high-school, but at the time, I had no idea design would become my career, my biggest passion, and such a vital part of my life. Nowadays, UX design, strategy, and mentoring take up most of my days. And I love that. When I’m not behind a screen or recording podcasts, you’ll find me drawing with pen and ink or training at a local park for my next Highland Games competition.
How does a giant like Google hire UX Designers? The answer’s in this episode!
Earl and Filippo hit the ground running with understanding the candidate funnel. It’s a straightforward process: screening, followed by hiring manager interview, followed by an on-site interview (or online these days).
The make-or-break step is, of course, the last one: the on-site interview. Earl explains how it’s divided into portfolio walkthrough, whiteboard challenge break-out groups.
The whiteboard exercise is the step where candidates feel the most nervous. Earl clarifies that, as a hiring manager, he’s not trying to trip up candidates but set them up for success. He brings up one interesting thing about the type of prompt or goal he has for the whiteboard challenge, which revolves around an emerging technology more often than not.
The portfolio walkthrough is next. Earl describes this step as fundamental to getting to know the candidate’s personality – it’s more about the person than the work here. One tip Earl brings up when it comes to standing out is personalizing case studies to the company candidates are applying to, or at least, creating hooks and making these deliverables exciting and enjoyable to read. After all, hiring managers only have a few minutes to read them.
The last insight Earl brings to the show is about managing nerves during interviews. Earl sings with the San Francisco Gay men’s Chorus, and he has plenty of live performances under his belt. So here’s the thing: instead of managing the nerves, Earl starts by acknowledging the nervous feeling. This simple mechanism allows him to move on from this unsettling feeling and be present in the moment. Give this a try during your next interview!
- Earl Friedberg’s LinkedIn profile
- Earl’s website
- Book Earl as your mentor
- San Francisco Gay Men’s Chorus
- Filippo Lovotti’s LinkedIn profile
Watch with Closed Captions
Earl Friedberg 0:00
You know, we're bonding with them over an hour and we want it to be for a reason. It's because we want to, we want them to succeed. So it's not like we're there hoping that they fail at all. We're there to help and support and walk the candidate through the hour and the entire interview process.
Filippo Lovotti 0:15
This is the industry of UX season to decide the UX hiring shortage. We talk to the experts to bring you the strategies, the thinking process and the reasoning behind the hiring decisions in the UX job market. Let's dive into the episode.
Filippo Lovotti 0:53
Hello, you wonderful UX authors. Welcome back to another episode of the industry of UX. I'm your host, Filippo Lovotti. Today, I'm really excited to bring you an amazing episode. If you ever wondered how big tech companies hire UX designers, I have a big surprise for you. Well, I guess, technically not a surprise, as soon as you probably read the title of the episode, but still a great episode. Nonetheless. We've got Earl freedberg, to walk us through the UX hiring process at Google. Earl has an amazing career. He leads the UX design team for Gmail and Google Chat. And before that, he also led the UX teams at riverbed, and Blackberry. In this episode, Earl walks us through the candidate funnel at Google. We also talk about the expectations for both the portfolio walkthrough. And of course, the whiteboard challenge are also sings with the San Francisco Gay Men's course. And he shares with us his approach to handling nerves during live performances, which can help you handle the nerves during an interview. Let me know what you think about the episode by tweeting at industry UX, no offense to Android users. But if you have an iPhone, give us a five star rating and review on Apple podcasts. It helps us produce a better show and bring the podcast to a bigger audience. Okay, on to the conversation with Earl. So let's talk about that. Specifically, the candidate funnel, how does that work at Google, from the moment a candidate applies all the way to the offer and even accepting the offer from the candidate side? Sure, yeah.
Earl Friedberg 2:46
So the way it works at Google is it's multi step, right? It's not that different than any other company you apply online. Or maybe you're lucky enough that a recruiter reached out to you on LinkedIn. So one way or another, you know, you've applied. And the first really stop there is the recruiter does a preliminary phone screen with the candidate, right. So that's really to make sure that the candidate is kind of who they say they are, and that their resume really fits the job they've applied to. So for instance, you know, in the case where a candidate might have been a senior designer and accidentally applied to a junior designer job, that's where kind of it gets corrected within that initial phone screen, right? Second step after that, really is a technical phone screen with the hiring manager. So this is where the hiring manager spends about an hour going through, you know, the candidates background with them, they go through their portfolio, and then they're able to kind of answer any questions that the candidate has at that point. So that's like kind of a second step. And then the third and mostly final step is what we call an on site interview, which these days is still remote. Yeah, but it's a it's a full day, where we work with the candidate to learn about their past experiences, we interview them according to certain attributes that are specific to Google, as well as dive into any role related knowledge.
Filippo Lovotti 4:12
Right. And that pretty much is the does that count as the end of the candidate funnel for that particular person?
Earl Friedberg 4:19
Filippo Lovotti 4:20
those three stages are kind of the the end, how are you evaluate the candidate during that third step? Because I'm imagining that the
Earl Friedberg 4:29
Yeah, that's the make it or break it staff? Sure. Yeah. So it's really interesting to ask that. So at that stage, we have some some rubrics, or we call them attributes that we evaluate the candidate against. And the interesting thing I think, with that is, you know, at Google, we match people according to it's not necessarily the specific job, but we look at least preliminary as matching them to the company. And so you know, at Google We're looking for attributes around, you know, are they a good culture add? Are they we look at their leadership style, that sort of thing, these Google wide attributes in addition to that role related knowledge,
Filippo Lovotti 5:12
right? Does that third step change in any way? When you're hiring for, say, a junior, or a senior? Or? I mean, I'm imagining maybe some of these attributes change. But how about the methodologies that you follow throughout the day?
Earl Friedberg 5:26
Yeah, great question. Yeah, the methodology is actually pretty much the same. It's same attributes as well, that we evaluate, but they are evaluated against a certain, you know, with a different kind of threshold, right,
Filippo Lovotti 5:40
so to speak. So I'm really interested on that third day, I wanted to ask you, and I'm going to do to kind of draw parallels here with Amazon. Because Sure, the process is somewhat similar to Amazon, meaning that there is a phone screen talking to the hiring manager, sometimes even talking to someone from your, let's say, your hiring managers, a dev manager, or is a business, it's part of the business, not necessarily someone that like a UX designer, right, you will talk to this hiring manager. And then they will also have you talked to someone in UX that you either are going to be working with or partner with throughout your for your new role, then you have you know, the full day when you have presentations, and all of that, and that's kind of what I want to ask you. So I know that on the Amazon side, we have a past work presentation, and then a whiteboard exercise, because that gives us a good understanding of how you can first off what you have done previously, which is good. And how do you articulate that when you present to a panel? Right? How do you articulate your heart your design decisions, and you know, your storytelling skill set. But then there is also that on the spot whiteboard exercise, which which everybody is
Earl Friedberg 6:52
terrified about your daughter.
Filippo Lovotti 6:56
I know you have mentees
Earl Friedberg 6:58
the whiteboard challenge is a significant part of our, you know, our rubric. And and kind of like you said, and maybe it wasn't clear before, but yeah, like, the day basically starts off with a portfolio walkthrough. That's great. Because you get to know the candidate, you get to know everybody on the interview panel. And then usually, it's immediately followed with the whiteboard challenge. And yeah, the whiteboard challenge really, really kind of tests your thinking, you know, on your feet, it's definitely I know, you know, candidates talk to me about being stressed and nervous. And really, the thing they're, they're most nervous about is the whiteboard challenge, because you don't know what to expect. And so really what the whiteboard challenge, what we're looking there for is the candidates, you know, ability to define problems, solve them, we're looking at their interaction, design knowledge. And especially because, you know, Google's a big company, we also really, really strongly looked at the candidates ability to collaborate with the interviewer, are they asking questions? Are they checking in that sort of thing. So that might be where kind of the interview process might differ a little between, let's say, Google and a startup is that collaboration, and especially working with different types of roles is really, really important in order to succeed at Google. Whereas maybe at a startup, it's a little more acceptable not to have worked with a user researcher before or maybe a product manager. So so the Yeah, usually, you know, the whiteboard challenge. We try not to trick the candidates, we're not really looking to trick them. We're really just looking to understand the way they think and understand the way they solve problems. And again, the way they collaborate and work with the interviewer on the problems.
Filippo Lovotti 8:39
Gotcha. Yes, that is definitely the way I normally describe it to my mentees, because even for my mentees, I know you have mentees too, so you can totally empathize with this. But every time we talk about the whiteboard challenge, it's always panic, very, very nervous. A demented the other day that was very nervous about it, she was going to have a mock whiteboard challenge. And right after our conversation, she was very nervous about it. And she was expecting almost that she was nervous for a few things for a few reasons. But the main reason is that she thought she had to wireframe, the entire experience A to Z. And she was really stressed about the time. And she was really stressed about the fact that hey, I only have one hour with this person. Am I really asked you going and designed entire app experience or website and you know,
Earl Friedberg 9:41
that is not the ask at all. I hope you've heard that. That's not the ask. We're not trying to get free labor out of this. Yeah, we're really just trying to really understand how the candidate goes about, you know, problem definition and problem solving. Right, and we really do want to see if they're, they're able to independently take something that's very ambiguous and probably very broad, and put some focus on it, spend, you know, an hour time managing that hour, you know, with the interviewer, and kind of giving, like a very, very small glimpse into how they might go about solving a design challenge, should they be hired by Google? But yeah, we see, you know, a lot of fumbles with the whiteboard challenge for sure. And part of that is because it is somewhat very artificial, right, it is an artificial situation to put somebody into. And so the best advice I can give, you know, to my springboard students, and and to people preparing, you know, to go through this interview process is really to practice on their own and with a partner whiteboard challenges, because practice really helps kind of evolve that skill of, you know, mastering this whiteboard challenge. And so as you start practicing, you start learning, okay, what to do what not to do, right becomes pretty clear. And then you know, there's tons of great articles online about, you know, how to master a whiteboard challenge. But I would say the number one mistake I really, really see, and it's quite frequent that I see this is that candidates jump into solutions way too quickly, without really understanding the problem defining it to finding their the target audience that they're, they're thinking about defining some assumptions. And so if I was to give any advice is to just like, take a breather, slow down, understand the problem, spend 10 to 15 minutes, just really kind of diving into it, make sure you're solid on kind of the the area of focus first and then go into solutioning. And I think that's very common advice. Now that's given to candidates applying.
Filippo Lovotti 11:57
Yes, I remember this one particular candidate that I administered a whiteboard exercise to, she was able to only get from a deliverable standpoint, half of our user flow, because we spent a good chunk of it on the fact that he or she really wanted to find out what the problem was that we were trying to solve, who the target audience was limitations, of course, and all the assumptions, understanding, you know, even laying out there, read potential read routes, and listing them out as you slowly make your way from the big, big, generic things to you know, narrowing everything down. But yeah, I think that that's a great way to look at it. And sometimes there is no time, there is no need to get even to wireframing. Anything really, one of the things that I I tell my mentees is, you have to get the first part, right. And you know, sometimes they're not giving you a full hour, sometimes they give you half an hour. And so you have to make it work there. And but the expectation is not for you to wireframe the entire thing or, or flesh it out. We as hiring managers, as you mentioned, when understand how you process this information and how you deal with ambiguity, like a very cloudy prompt. And with that said, I wanted to ask you what is if you're comfortable giving this out? Or maybe you can make a parallel. So it's not too giving away too much. But what will be a classic, or from Google prompt doing? Doing your whiteboard,
Earl Friedberg 13:25
you're gonna give away all my secrets? Yeah, that's a really good question. So usually, I like to give a challenge with some sort of emerging technology involved. So whether it's drones, or maybe it's glasses, and that way, there's a little less context to refer to less familiarity to the space, and really kind of gets at is the candidate able to ask the right questions in order to understand the new emerging technology and understand this new context. So without giving away too much, I think at Google, you could expect a whiteboard challenge that usually would involve some sort of constraint, I guess, I would say that that involves an emerging technology. That's brilliant.
Filippo Lovotti 14:14
I really like that. It's also energizing, right? Instead of Hey, could you design an e commerce app or a retail website or another
Earl Friedberg 14:25
delivery app just shoot me if I have to get that design challenge, right and think about it this way too. Like the interviewer is there too because they're passionate about shaping the future of the UX community in their job and they don't want to sit there for an hour being bored out of their mind with this you know, candidate they want to have some fun too. So Exactly. You know, this is a good chance to let not just your problem solving skills shine but also your your personality and your you know, ability to have fun in a in a professional context. Really Let it shine. Now,
Filippo Lovotti 15:00
the only thing that I will add to that is that Rick's away a little bit from it. But we understand that you are nervous. As hiring managers, we understand that you're nervous, we sometimes are nervous too, while we give you these prompts, but we understand that we are nervous and understand that sometimes they're going to freeze a little bit. We don't expect, like a, I don't know, cold, calculated robots,
Earl Friedberg 15:26
right? No. And, you know, there is a misconception like we, as interviewers, we want our candidates to succeed, we want this candidate, we're bonding with them over an hour, and we want it to be for a reason. It's because we want to, you know, hire for a particular position, we want them to succeed. So it's not like we're there hoping that they fail at all, we're there to help and support and walk the candidate through the hour and the entire interview process to be frank. So that's what I would say for sure. It's like, I don't want anybody to not do poorly. And that's why with whiteboard challenges, I'm okay, nudging you know, the candidate, if they get stuck, or if they have questions that is totally reasonable, it's totally reasonable to get stuck, and to have the interviewer nudge the candidate more in the right direction.
Filippo Lovotti 16:17
So let's talk a little bit about other steps of this candidate funnel or maybe other exercises. We talked about the whiteboard exercise, what is also important to know about the presentation that normally occurs prior to that, what are things that you're looking for in this presentation?
Earl Friedberg 16:36
Sure. Yeah, so the portfolio walkthrough is is weighted very heavily as part of the interview process. You're typically presenting your portfolio walkthrough, it's the first thing you're doing in the day, right? And so all the interviewer panel, like everybody from the panel is there, it's your first impression, the first time you know, the candidate has a chance to show who they are as a person as a designer. And so one of the first things I'm looking for really is like, Who is this person? Tell me more about this person? What do they like? What did they not like? What are their passions? What are their interests? Can I work with this person? And that's going through all the interviewers minds, as you're presenting right is like, Can I work with this versus somebody that I would enjoy working with? And, you know, I think a lot of designers and junior designers to be don't really think of it that way. They really think of their portfolio walkthrough, maybe as a way for people to get to know their work. But really, it's a way to get to know the person in a lot of ways. And so I'm looking to get to know the person, guess I'm looking to know a bit more about their history. I'm also looking to understand like, how do they handle struggles that they've gone through in the design process, I see a lot of presentations, that only showed me the happy path, I don't want to know about the happy path, I want to know about the struggles about the challenges about the messy parts of the design project, because that's really what design is about, right? It's about the messy parts. And so it's interesting because a lot of candidates will leave out the messy bits because they want this tight, little neat pack portfolio presentation. That's a very linear and smooth and really what we're looking for is a scrappy, you know, napkins, scratches. Tell me about the pivots, the big pivots Tell me about the people who you had conflicts with? How did you resolve them? all the hurdles that you went through as a designer to get to this point? I really want to know about those?
Filippo Lovotti 18:41
Yep, that is what gives you a view of the person behind the portfolio. And this is something that I always tell my my mentees is that that's a great tip normally that I also give on how do you stand out when people are looking at your portfolio is like to let their personality shine through. And the same thing happened not to do the same with the case studies or the portfolio presentations, you know, showed how the personality came through show that you know, the struggle Actually, I had another guests on the show, their name is Adrian. And they told me that when looking at a case study, they care more about how the sausage is made than the polished UI and visual design and all of that as you mentioned the nice things that Yeah, of course I know that that's that's beautiful, right so linear and so perfect but when you and this is like one other thing that normally you asked with behavioral questions, cuz I want to know I'm going to be able to questions asked more about the eight when things went sideways. How did you re assessed and adjusted normally
Earl Friedberg 19:54
Yeah, I you know, I would say definitely want to know about how the sausage is made. It's such an important part of the story really that should not be left out. And just to add to that, I'm really, so from a hiring manager perspective, you know, nine, almost 90% of the time case studies look the exact same, they look like they're coming from a factory. It's problem discovery, research, right? solution, right? The headlines look the same. And you're, you're never gonna stand out if you have a kind of this prescribed theoretical design process with these titles that are, you know, not that, frankly, interesting. So one thing I do talk a lot to my mentees about is how to create kind of hooks in their headlines and hooks in their story. And this is really comes from being a good editor at, you know, editorial kind of Avenue here. But some of the most interesting portfolios I've seen, and the most, some of the the applications that really, really got noticed, are the ones that have these hooks that are that are almost super controversial, right? Like I, I just read a case study the other day for one on our roles. And it was that the title was why Gmail sucks. And I work on Gmail. So of course, I'm going to respond to that, right? Like, what somebody, somebody who's applying to this job thinks Do you know, and so, they were good, because the next sentence right after that was actually, actually I was just kidding. Gmail is great. But here are things I think, you know, things I, you know, would improve in areas where I think Google can invest. And so to me that that just means Oh, the candidate really is knows their audience, or they're, they're really looking at targeting their audience with this. And so that is something you know, as a designer you can only hope for in a candidate is that they really, just like they would in the design practice. They're also thinking about their audience when they apply to the job. They're thinking about the company they're applying to, and they're thinking about their interview panel.
Filippo Lovotti 21:58
Yeah, that speaks a lot about the communication skill set that they have, right, the empathy that they also have for the person that's going to read this
Earl Friedberg 22:07
Filippo Lovotti 22:08
Yeah, it's always a good thing to have that instead of having boring, I will say boring, but like very Matter of fact, titles like the problem, my role, the solution, right, as I have a mentee at springboard, and she, she was really insecure about the titles of her chunks over case study, because she was very descriptive in our titles. So instead of saying the problem, she will describe it, just give a little bite size sentence about some aspects of the problem. That was interesting. And she was very discouraged because she showed that to a fellow mentee at springboard, and this mentee gave her feedback that Hey, no, no, you should go with very descriptive, very factual titles like the problem, my role is that because hiring managers only have a few seconds or a few minutes to scan through your portfolio, and so they have to see those sections to you know, check the boxes. And I give her the opposite advice. I told her No, no, these titles are actually not going to make you stand out from the people like designer mentee, they have the problem, the solution, my role, and all that, which is almost like a standard.
Earl Friedberg 23:19
Exactly. And kind of like what you mentioned, like I actually, you know, let's be honest, I only have a couple minutes to review this portfolio right on this candidate. And so typically, what do I look at? I look at the imagery, right, the visuals and the headings and the subheadings. Right. And if I could, you know, get a story out of the headings, then maybe I'll be interested in reading a little more of the content. So I think your your advice was spot on. Actually, it's because that the hiring manager only looks at the portfolio for a couple minutes that you should have headings that are interesting, and really thoughtful and describe the problem you're solving. I personally normally look at the headings, of course, and visuals or lack of visuals, meaning that if I see that there is a lot of text. Now I want to know why under any visual. So now I start reading or scanning through, because maybe the title of that particular paragraph is telling me that they did something that maybe they didn't have the skill set to put in a visual, but I want to learn so
Filippo Lovotti 24:23
similar but different approach, if that makes any sense. But it's I think we're all looking for the same signals, right? There's nothing wrong with being creative UX. It's a very functional practice, but it's also creative field. So there's nothing wrong with that. All right, now that we talked about that, I wanted to mention one other thing. In our pre recording call. We talked about one thing that I thought it was really interesting. So when for instance you apply to Amazon, Amazon really puts a lot of value in how you present to them when it comes to operational efficiency. You know, you have to be very customer obsessed and operationally efficient. So scalability definitely plays a role. When you go to Facebook, they care a lot about the design, and how did you come up with that particular experience? And if you can break it down accessibility and really, really focus on the design, on the product design itself? What about Google?
Earl Friedberg 25:21
Great question. It's all about collaboration and partnerships at Google, that is a huge area of focus for us. At Google, like a lot of other companies, we have really large design teams, we also have a lot of different types of UX roles. We also have a lot of products, we earn a lot of different domains, we have a lot of families of products. And so at Google, what's really important because of all this is getting candidates and really, we you know, we call them Googlers, right? Having Googlers that are able to independently collaborate and work together, I can't tell you how many times recruiters have brought me these, like superstar designer candidates that on paper, and even you know, their work is amazing. But when you dig into it, you realize, Oh, this person actually can't collaborate with other people. They're a superstar designer, but I can't imagine them working with my team or hundreds of other people. This is like a solo designer, solo senior designer. So this, you know, might be great for a different company. But for Google, we're, we're not looking for that type of candidate at all, we're really looking for somebody who does have that aptitude to be able to collaborate, and that proactivity to be able to partner. And so some of the things, you know, we look for, there are evidence of collaboration with roles other than their own, we'll also look for evidence that they have of collaborating with people who maybe don't come from the same background as them maybe don't look like them. And that's, that's, you know, very, very, very important, especially at a multinational company like Google. Nice.
Filippo Lovotti 27:08
That's great to hear that. So I have two more questions. Sure. The last one, is, I know that you sing in the San Francisco Gay Men's chorus. So you are used to perform in front of a large audience. And maybe we can use some of that, to answer the next question. How do you manage nerves? When you are in front of such a large audience? Maybe we can translate that into how can candidates manage your nerves when they come and interview at Google?
Earl Friedberg 27:40
Oh, that's such a great question. You know, I have to say, it's what really has helped me especially you know, perform is actually not to manage the nerves, but just to acknowledge that they're there, that they're always gonna be there. It's normal. And it's this actually this acknowledgement and this kind of normalizing that I think actually really helps talking about it, especially before performance, right about how nervous we are. And all the areas we might not do well in, but we're just going to power through it. That often helps. And so you know, I think as a designer to and as a specially somebody interviewing, I think just acknowledging that you are going to be nervous, even letting the interviewers know that you're going to be nervous. They're happy to be there. They're happy to support you. And so I think acknowledgement is probably the best route there. I don't know if I have a better answer for that. But acknowledgement has helped me
Filippo Lovotti 28:39
earn. This was amazing. Thank you so much for coming on the show today. I think you brought so many great insights, not just from the Google side, but also when looking at UX interviewing, interviewing UX as a whole as a big umbrella. So thank you so much. One last question. As promised. Are you open to mentoring outside of springboard? I guess it's a two fold question. Are you open to mentoring outside of springboard? And where can people find you online if they want to reach out to you?
Earl Friedberg 29:09
Great question. I actually really love to hear from people I would love to hear from your audience. You know, I don't have all the time in the world to spend but I definitely super passionate about shaping you know, the future community of young designers of junior designers who are really looking to get their first job and really looking to get into the field. They can happily reach out to me in a couple different ways. They could contact me on my website, my website is just URL f.com which I swear will be up by the time this podcast is up. They can also find me on LinkedIn happy to respond. They're also on Twitter if they want to follow me just URL freeburg nothing too fancy there. With be happy, very happy to hear from Your audience.
Filippo Lovotti 30:03
I hope you enjoyed the episode. If you are interested in any of the resources we mentioned, all the links are on the episode page of our website, the industry of UX calm. Thanks to Earth for coming on the show. Thanks to Julian at podcast edition for the audio engineering work. If you have any feedback about the episode, or the show, let us know by tweeting at industry UX. If you really want to help or say thank you from the bottom of your heart, please leave a five star rating and review on Apple podcasts. It helps us climb the charts and bring our show to a bigger audience. Last but not least, thanks for listening, and I'm looking forward to talking to you next week.
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